Because epithelial ovarian cancers begin deep in the pelvis, they often do not cause any symptoms until they are at an advanced stage. Furthermore, many of the symptoms of ovarian cancer are hard to differentiate from symptoms experienced by women who do not have ovarian cancer, such as back pain, fatigue, abdominal bloating, constipation, vague abdominal pain, and urinary symptoms. Because of the lack of specificity of early ovarian cancer symptoms, the majority of women (roughly 70%) already have advanced cancer at the time of diagnosis.1,2,3,4 Ovarian cancer is often originally suspected in women when their physician finds an abnormal pelvic growth during an internal pelvic examination. Ovarian cancer may spread to the lining of the abdominal cavity and lead to the buildup of fluid inside the abdomen, called ascites.
Symptoms and signs of ovarian cancer most commonly include the following:
- Back pain
- Abdominal bloating
- Vague abdominal pain
- Urinary symptoms
- Irregular bowel movements
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get colon cancer and not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer, it simply means that you are at greater risk than normal to develop the cancer.
Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer
- Having a family history of breast or ovarian cancer in a first degree relative (parent, sibling, or child) with breast cancer gene mutations, referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2
- Having a personal history of previous colon, rectal, or ovarian cancer.
- Having inherited changes in certain genes associated with familial colon cancer and polyposis syndromes.
- Lynch syndrome
1 Chobanian N, Dietrich CS. Ovarian Cancer. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2008; 88:285-99, vi.
2 Ries LAG, Melbert D, Krapcho M, Stinchcomb DG, Howlader N, Horner MJ, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, Altekruse SF, Lewis DR, Clegg L, Eisner MP, Reichman M, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2005, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2005/, based on November 2007 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2008.
3 Armstrong, D. Ovaries and fallopian tubes. In: Abeloff MD ed. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2008: 1827-50.
4 Ries LAG, Melbert D, Krapcho M, Stinchcomb DG, Howlader N, Horner MJ, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, Altekruse SF, Lewis DR, Clegg L, Eisner MP, Reichman M, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2005, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2005/, based on November 2007 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2008.
6 Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Cancer.Net website. Available at: http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer. Accessed January 14, 2017.
7 Finch A, Bacopulos S, Rosen B, et al. Preventing ovarian cancer through genetic testing: A population-based study. Clinical Genetics. 2014;86(5):496-99. doi: 10.1111/cge.12313
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