A stage II non-small cell lung cancer is located in one lung and may involve lymph nodes on the same side of the chest that do not include lymph nodes in the mediastinum.
Administration of chemotherapy after surgery, referred to as adjuvant therapy improves survival for patients with NSCLC when compared to treatment with surgery alone and is now considered standard of care.1,2 Efforts are underway to evaluate new precision or targeted therapies to further improve the outcome of individuals with early stage lung cancer.
A variety of factors ultimately influence a patient’s decision to receive treatment of cancer. The purpose of receiving cancer treatment may be to improve symptoms through local control of the cancer, increase a patient’s chance of cure, or prolong a patient’s survival. The potential benefits of receiving cancer treatment must be carefully balanced with the potential risks of receiving cancer treatment.
The following is a general overview of treatment for Stage II NSCLC. Treatment may consist of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatment techniques. The information on this website is intended to help educate patients about their treatment options and to facilitate a mutual or shared decision-making process with their treating cancer physician.
For patients with NSCLC have cancer that is limited to the chest surgical resection is not only an important therapeutic modality, but in many cases, the most effective method of controlling the disease. Patients with stages I-II localized cancer without spread to lymph nodes are considered to have early stage lung cancer and are almost always treated with surgery. The following are the types of surgical procedures that may be performed in patients with Stage II NSCLC.
Thoracotomy: Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure to open the chest and remove cancerous lung tissue. This surgical procedure is performed under general anesthesia.
Surgical removal of the cancer may be accomplished by removing the entire lung (pneumonectomy), a lobe of the lung (lobectomy) or even a small segment of the lung (segmentectomy). In general, the less lung that is removed, the greater the preservation of lung function and the lower the risk of major side effects from the surgery. On the other hand, if too little lung is removed, there is an increased chance of a local cancer recurrence. Currently, most physicians recommend a lobectomy. A patient’s general overall condition, age and location of the cancer are other factors that may influence the type of surgery performed and the side effects associated with the surgery. Prior to surgery, patients should carefully discuss the risks and benefits of removing the cancer with their surgeon.
When surgery is conducted in patients with early-stage NSCLC, physicians often remove nearby lymph nodes and send them to the laboratory to determine if they contain cancer cells. The number of lymph nodes removed is often based on physician preference. Results from a recent study conducted by researchers in New York indicate that patients with a larger number of sampled lymph nodes may be more accurately staged and receive more appropriate therapy, ultimately leading to improved overall and cancer-free survival. These researchers suggest that 6 or more lymph nodes should be surgically removed and evaluated in all patients with Stage II NSCLC undergoing surgery to remove cancer.3
Video-Assisted Thorascopic Surgery (VATS): This is a form of minimally invasive surgery that utilizes a television camera. The advantages of the camera-aided procedures are that smaller incisions can be used and there is no need to cut through a rib, which is necessary for conventional thoracotomy. This results in quicker, less intrusive surgery, with a much smaller scar. However, using these new procedures requires significant skill and a great deal of training. There is less, or at least different, visibility with VATS. If a serious problem arises, VATS can be converted to an open or traditional procedure, creating a small additional risk.
Some patients with lung cancer are not able to undergo the surgery to remove their cancer. Advanced age and other medical conditions such as heart disease and diminished lung capacity make it more difficult for these patients to withstand surgery. For these patients, staging of their cancer may be relatively precise using newer scanning techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) and they are often offered radiation therapy as treatment for their cancer.
Two studies have demonstrated that patients with stages I-II NSCLC who are not able to, or do not wish to undergo surgery may be treated with radiation therapy alone. One of these was an extensive review of the literature since the mid-1980’s and the other was a recently conducted clinical trial that evaluated the use of radiation administered twice-daily for approximately 5 weeks. Results indicated that radiation therapy alone produced an average survival time of over 30 and 34 months, respectively.4,5
It is important to realize that patients with Stage II NSCLC may already have small amounts of cancer that have spread outside the lung and cannot be detected with any of the currently available tests. Undetectable areas of cancer are referred to as micrometastases. The presence of micrometastases causes the 40% of relapses that follow treatment with surgery or radiation alone.
Adjuvant chemotherapy-treatment with chemotherapy after surgery is considered standard treatment for stage 1 NSCLC: A National Cancer Institute of Canada clinical trial showed that adjuvant chemotherapy increased the number of patients who lived 5 years or more from 54% to 69%,1 and US researchers have demonstrated that adjuvant chemotherapy increased the number of patients who survived 3 years or more from 69% to 82%.6
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Neoadjuvant therapy is chemotherapy that is delivered before surgery with the goal of providing immediate treatment and reducing the size of the cancer for easier resection.
A meta-analysis that included data from 15 eligible randomized controlled trials involving a total of 2,385 patients has revealed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the time to cancer recurrence and improves overall survival. Patients should discuss the potential risks and benefits of receiving chemotherapy prior to surgery with their treating physician.7
Although patients with stage IA NSCLC have a relatively high rate of long-term survival following treatment many patients are still at risk for developing a cancer recurrence due to micrometastases. Also, patients who have been treated for NSCLC may still develop another lung cancer if lifestyle or other factors that increase their risk of developing cancer have not been changed. Researchers have been evaluating different screening methods and schedules for these patients in order to detect recurrent or second cancers early, when they are most treatable.
Researchers from the City of Hope National Medical Center recently determined that annual CT scans and chest x-rays three times per year may detect early second cancers in patients with previously treated stage IA NSCLC who appeared to be cured. These researchers evaluated 124 patients previously treated with surgery alone. Follow-up included an annual computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest with interval chest x-rays every 4 months for 2 years and every 6 months for 3 additional years. During this time, 14 patients were found to have developed a second cancer and received further surgery. The average diameter of cancers detected by CT smaller than those detected by x-ray, 14 millimeters compared to 26.5 millimeters.8
Strategies to Improve Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
The development of more effective treatment for NSCLC requires that new and innovative therapies be evaluated with cancer patients. Future progress in treatment will result from the continued evaluation of new treatments in clinical trials.
Patients may gain access to better treatments by participating in a clinical trial. Participation in a clinical trial also contributes to the cancer community’s understanding of optimal cancer care and may lead to better standard treatments. Patients who are interested in participating in a clinical trial should discuss the risks and benefits of clinical trials with their physician. Areas of active investigation aimed at improving the treatment of NSCLC include some of the the following:
New chemotherapy regimens: Current clinical trials are focusing on combining chemotherapy drugs known to be active in advanced NSCLC, such as Gemzar®, Taxotere®, paclitaxel, Paraplatin®, and Platinol® into treatment regimens with newer cancer killing drugs in order to further improve survival duration and decrease side effects in both the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting.
Precision Medicine or Targeted Therapy: A targeted or precision therapy is one that is designed to treat only the cancer cells and minimize damage to normal, healthy cells. Cancer treatments that “target” cancer cells may offer the advantage of reduced treatment-related side effects and improved outcomes. Targeted therapies directed at mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the ALK gene have improved outcomes in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and are now being evaluated in stage I-IIIA disease.
ALCHEMIST- the Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials – represents three integrated, precision medicine trials that are designed to identify people with early-stage lung cancer who have tumors that harbor EGFR and ALK gene alterations and evaluate whether drug treatments targeted against those molecular changes can lead to improved survival compared to current standard of care therapy alone.
EGFR: Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene may affect how NSCLC responds to certain drugs. EGFR contributes to the growth of several types of cancer, and drugs that block the activity of EGFR can slow cancer growth. One EGFR-targeted drug that has been shown to benefit selected patients with NSCLC is Tarceva® (erlotinib). Tarceva® is currently approved for the treatment of advanced NSCLC and as maintenance therapy after chemotherapy.9
EGFR mutations are most common in people of Asian ethnicity, women, never-smokers, and those with a type of lung cancer known as adenocarcinoma. Researchers have reported that EFGR positive individuals treated with Tarceva® plus chemotherapy have delayed time to cancer progression and improved survival compared to those treated with chemotherapy alone.9,10
Xalkori (crizotinib): Up to 7% of NSCLC’s have an abnormal version of the ALK gene that contributes to the growth and development of cancer. Xalkori is an oral medication that blocks certain proteins, including the protein produced by this abnormal gene. For advanced non-small cell lung cancers that test positive for the ALK gene mutation, Xalkori has produced very promising rates of response and appears to have some activity treating cancer that has spread to the brain.11,12
Angiogenesis inhibitors: A growing area of cancer research involves the inhibition of angiogenesis. Cancer cells require food, oxygen and proteins in order to grow and spread. These essential nutrients are transported to the cancer cells by blood vessels. Angiogenesis is the process of creating new blood vessels necessary to transport “food” to the cancer cells. Two of several key proteins that are necessary for the process of angiogenesis are called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). VEGF causes endothelial cells (cells comprising the innermost layer of blood vessels) to replicate and migrate from existing blood vessels to the cancer. Endothelial cells secrete MMPs, which create an opening in existing tissues surrounding the cancer, allowing the endothelial cells to move near the cancer and form new blood vessels to “feed” the cancer. Researchers have been evaluating targeted treatments hinder or reduce the effects of VEGF and thus, slow cancer progression.
Bevacizumab (Avastin) is an angiogenesis inhibitor still being evaluated in clinical trials. It produces its anti-angiogenic effects by binding to VEGF and inhibiting or reducing the growth of new blood vessels necessary to promote cancer cell growth. The addition of (Avastin) to standard chemotherapy treatment is being evaluated in patients with NSCLC.13
Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy is a new treatment procedure that is still in investigative stages for various cancers. Cryotherapy is a technique that kills cancer cells by freezing them with sub-zero temperatures. During this procedure, hollow steel probes are placed inside and surrounding the cancer. Liquid nitrogen is then circulated through the probes, freezing the cancer cells and creating a ball of ice that surrounds the cancer. Once an adequate ice ball is formed, heated nitrogen is circulated through the probes. This process is then repeated.
Researchers from France conducted a clinical trial evaluating cryotherapy for the treatment of early stage lung cancer. Cryotherapy was performed through a rigid bronchoscope (a lighted tube that is placed into the bronchi). In this trial, 35 patients with early stage lung cancer received cryotherapy, 20% of whom had multiple locations of early stage lung cancer. One year following treatment, 91% of patients had a complete disappearance of cancer. Four years following treatment, only 10 patients experienced a local cancer recurrence. The treatment was well tolerated by these patients.14
Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT): IGRT involves a computed tomography (CT) scanner and computer modeling to accurately determine the size and depth of the cancer. In addition, this technique determines the measurement of the cancer through all stages of respiration and can direct the radiation more precisely while the patient is breathing normally. Researchers from Japan recently concluded that IGRT appears to be an effective and well tolerated radiation technique for patients with inoperable Stage II NSCLC with poor lung function. A distinct advantage of IGRT is that patients do not have to hold their breath during the treatment, which is necessary for standard radiation therapy. This is important because many patients with lung cancer have poor lung function and are not able to hold their breath during treatment.
Of the 21 patients with Stage II NSCLC involved in this clinical trial, 5 experienced a complete disappearance of detectable cancer, 11 patients experienced at least a 50% reduction in the volume of their cancer, and one patient had progressive disease following therapy. Approximately two years following therapy, only 5 patients had experienced a cancer recurrence. The treatment was well tolerated with no major side effects reported. Further clinical trials will are necessary to determine the role of IGRT in the clinical setting and demonstrate whether chemotherapy prior to or following radiation therapy may further improve long-term outcomes.15
References for Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
2 Kato H, Ichinose Y, Ohta M, et al. A randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur for adenocarcinoma of the lung. New England Journal of Medicine. 2004;350(17):1713-21.
3 Gajra A, Newman N, Gamble G, et al. Effect of number of lymph nodes sampled on outcome in patients with Stage II non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2003;21:1029-1034.
4 Jeremic B, Calssen J, Bamberg M. Radiotherapy alone in technically operable, medically inoperable, early-stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics2002;54:119.
5 Jeremic B, Calssen J, Bamberg M. Radiotherapy alone in technically operable, medically inoperable, early-stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics2002;54:119.
6 Strauss GM, Herndon J, Maddaus MA, et al. Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin following resection in Stage IB non-small cell lung cancer: Report of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Protocol 9633. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2004;22:Suppl 14S: Abstract #7019.
7 NSCLC Meta-analysis Collaborative Group. Preoperative chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. The Lancet. Published early online February 25, 2014. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62159-5
8 Lamong J, Kakuda J, Smith D, et al. Systematic postoperative radiologic follow-up in patients with non-small cell lung cancer for detecting second primary lung cancer in stage IA. Archives of Surgery2002;137:935-939.
9 Zhou C, Wu Y-L, Chen G et al. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): A multicentre, open-label, randomized, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncology. Early online publication July 22, 2011.
10 Cappuzo F, Ciuleanu T, Stelmakh L, et al. Erlotinib as maintenance treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. The Lancet Oncology. Published early online May 20, 2010.
11 Shaw AT, Kim DW, Mehra R, et al: Ceritinib in ALK-rearranged non–small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014; 370: 1189-1197.
12 Kwak EL, Bang Y-J, Camidge DR et al. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363:1693-1703.
13 Second Phase III Study of Avastin Plus Chemotherapy Shows Improved Progression-Free Survival in First-Line Non-Squamous, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Available at:http://www.gene.com/gene/news/press-releases/display.do?method=detail&id=10727.
14 Deygas N, Froudarakis M, Ozenne G, and Vergnon JM. Cryotherapy in Early Superficial Bronchogenic Carcinoma. Chest. 2001;120:26-31.
15 Fukumoto S, Shirato H, Shimzu S, et al. Small-volume image-guided radiotherapy using hypofractionated, coplanar, and noncoplanar multiple fields for patients with inoperable Stage II non-small cell lung carcinomas. Cancer. 2002;95:1546-1553.
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